For Successful Aging, Pick Up the Pace or Mix It Up 陽光老化,年長的您運動的強度和多樣性可能需要多一些

Here are the highlights from a Sep. 3, 2020 NY Times article. 本文是2020年9月3號紐約時報一篇文章的重點摘譯分享。It’s based on a 2020-07 study by a group of exercise scientists at Humboldt State University in California and the University of Colorado at Boulder. 文章的報導是根據2020年7月加州洪堡州立大學和科羅拉多大學博爾德分校的一組運動科學家發表的一份研究報告

Past biomechanics studies show that people tend to become physiologically inefficient walkers with age, using more oxygen to walk at the same pace as younger people. In practical terms, this rising inefficiency would make walking feel harder and more tiring, perhaps prompting older people to walk less, sit more and potentially become frail. 過去的生物力學研究指出,隨著年齡的增長,年長者的步行效率會降低,這是生理上自然的反應。要以年輕人相同的速度步行,年長者需使用更多的氧氣。 這種效率低下的生理現象也使步行變得更難,更累,促使老年人越是少走多坐,進而可能變得更虛弱。

The researchers set out to see if a different exercise, in this case cycling, might likewise affect the ease of walking. They recruited older (65+ years old) riders and walkers… The researchers also brought in a group of healthy young people as a control. 研究人員於是著手研究不同的運動是否會改變步行的容易度(不同的運動選擇的是騎自行車)。 他們招募了年齡較大(65歲以上)的單車族和步行者來做研究比較……研究人員還另外引進了一群健康的年輕人作為對照。

Everyone then walked on a treadmill at paces ranging up to about 4 miles per hour while the researchers tracked their oxygen consumption… the older cyclists walked well, their efficiency matching that of the young people. But the older walkers’ efficiency was as much as 17 percent lower. 然後,每個人都以每小時約4英里(6.4公里)的速度在跑步機上行走,研究人員同時用儀器量測紀錄他們體內的耗氧量… 結果顯示,老年單車族行走得很好,其(耗氧)效率與年輕人相當。 但是,老年步行者的效率卻比單車族老人低了17%。

In effect, walking for exercise seemed not to have “supplied sufficient physical stimulus” to maintain people’s ability to walk easily as they aged, says Justus Ortega, a professor at Humboldt State University who co-authored both studies. Running and cycling were associated with more efficient walking than regular walking was. 洪堡州立大學教授Justus Ortega表示,實際上,步行運動似乎並沒有“提供足夠的身體刺激”來維持人們隨年齡增長後可以繼續輕鬆走路的能力。 跑步騎自行車一般的步行更能提高步行的效率。

The studies did not delve into how cycling or running might have affected people’s walking efficiency. But Dr. Ortega says he and his colleagues suspect that the more demanding exertions boosted the health and function of mitochondria inside muscle cells in ways that gentler walking did not. Mitochondria affect how cells make and utilize energy. Healthier mitochondria should contribute to more efficient movement. 這些研究沒有深入研究騎自行車或跑步如何影響人們的步行效率。 但是奧爾特加博士說,他和他的同事們懷疑,硬道一點的運動才會促進肌肉細胞內線粒體 (mitochondria) 的健康和功能,這是一般日常輕鬆走路無法達到的效果。 線粒體會影響細胞如何產生和利用能量。 體內的線粒體越健康,任何的運動效率都會越高。

Remark by Coach Denys: The mitochondria in your cells affect not just how efficient you move and exercise, but all the hundreds of millions of metabolic and biological reactions in your physiology every second throughout your life. It certainly is a critical factor that determines your longevity. Here is a quote from one of the most credible and influential functional medicine doctors, Mark Hyman: “Mitochondria are the microscopic powerhouses hiding within most cells and they have huge consequences for our health. Damaged mitochondria can lead to a host of insults, including metabolic disease. Healthy mitochondria, on the other hand, can result in optimal aging.”

防彈大叔補充說明線粒體的功能和健康狀態不只是在運動效率上是一個很重要的因素,對於身體中每秒鐘都在發生的數千萬種的新陳代謝和生化作用都扮演關鍵的角色,當然也會決定你壽命的長短。功能醫學界裡極具聲望和影響力的馬克·海曼醫師(Mark Hyman)曾說:線粒體就像是隱藏在人體大多數細胞中的微小發電廠,對我們的健康具有巨大影響。線粒體受損會導致一系列的生理敗壞,包括導致新陳代謝疾(慢性病);反之,健康的線粒體可以延年益壽。”

Dr. Ortega says he believes the studies’ findings can be both cautionary and encouraging, suggesting that, while any physical activity is worthwhile, pushing yourself a bit now might yield lasting benefits for health and mobility. So, if you currently stroll for exercise, he says, perhaps consider cycling or jogging sometimes, too, if possible. Or add hills to your usual walking route, or, at least for a block or three, pick up the pace. 奧爾特加博士說,他認為這項研究的發現是發人深思也令人鼓舞的,這表明,雖然說任何形式和強度的運動多少都有其效果存在,但現在就多要求一下自己,稍微提升一下運動的強度和多樣性,長遠來看應該可以為自己的健康和活力帶來持久的好處。 因此,他說,如果您目前唯一的運動就是散步,可能的話,也許可以考慮偶而騎自行車或慢跑。 或在通常的步行路線上增加些許爬坡,或者至少在部份路段加快步伐。

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